The menstrual cycle is a monthly cycle that a women's body goes through in preparation for a possible pregnancy. Each month, one of our ovaries releases an egg, which is known as 'ovulation'.

While ovulation is taking place, hormonal changes also begin to prepare the uterus for pregnancy. If ovulation occurs but the egg isn't fertilised, our uterus will then shed it's lining through the vagina. This is what then becomes our monthly period.

Our hormones can fluctuate a lot throughout our menstrual cycle, which has an impact on our appetite and how much fluid our body retains. Both of these factors can lead to perceived or actual weight gain around the time of a period. Food cravings, increased hunger, water retention, and swelling are premenstrual symptoms that may make us feel like we're gaining weight.

What are typical symptoms of PMS?

Many people experience both physical and psychological symptoms during a period. The type, severity, and duration of symptoms will vary from person to person.

Some people may experience a combination of symptoms, while others might not experience any at all.

Symptoms may include:

  • Headaches
  • Aches and pains
  • Fatigue
  • Skin problems
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms
  • Abdominal pain
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Angry outbursts
  • Crying spells
  • Confusion
  • Social withdrawal
  • Poor concentration
  • Insomnia
  • Changes in sexual desire

People may feel additional symptoms in the days leading up to a period. Symptoms may include:

  • Thirst and appetite changes
  • Bloating
  • Headache
  • Swelling of the hands or feet

How does the menstruation cycle affect appetite?

Many of us may notice significant changes to our appetite throughout the monthly menstrual cycle. For some, these changes may lead to concerns over weight gain.

Changes to our appetite tend to occur at two different stages of the menstrual cycle: the follicular phase and the luteal phase.

  • The follicular phase. This phase begins when when we starting bleeding and ends before we begin ovulation. Oestrogen is the dominant hormone during this phase. Since oestrogen suppresses appetite, we may find we eat less during this phase.
  • The luteal phase. This phase begins after ovulation and lasts up to the first day of the next period. During the luteal phase, progesterone is the dominant hormone. Since progesterone stimulates appetite, we tend to be more hungry during this phase, which may lead to increase food intake.

Water retention and swelling

We also may experience increased water and salt retention around the time of our period. This is due to an increase in the hormone progesterone. Progesterone activates the hormone aldosterone, which then causes the kidneys to retain water and salt. This can lead to bloating and swelling, particularly in the abdomen, arms, and legs and can give the appearance of weight gain. It can also make our clothes feel a bit tighter.

For those of us looking to lose weight, this can sometimes feel disheartening, especially when we’re wanting to see results on the programme. However, keep in mind that any weight gain around the time of your period is more likely to be fluid-related, rather than true changes to your fat or muscle mass.

Magnesium

In the week leading up to our period, research has shown that our magnesium levels can drop, which can further exacerbate some symptoms, including bloating. Ensuring we include plenty of foods rich in magnesium could help us better manage these symptoms.

Foods high in magnesium include:

  • Avocados
  • Nuts (peanuts, almonds, cashews)
  • Legumes
  • Tofu
  • Seeds
  • Leafy greens
  • Bananas

What can I do to stay on track during my period?

We may find it more difficult to manage food cravings in the days leading up to our period. Here's a list of things we recommend during this time:

  • Take a break from the scales and avoid weighing yourself
  • Plan your meals ahead of time to ensure you have nutritious ingredients stocked in the fridge and cupboard
  • Organise a few healthy snacks to have ready ahead of time
  • Avoid sugary foods as these can make some of the symptoms worse
  • Include magnesium-rich foods in your diet
  • Stay hydrated: try to drink at least 8 glasses of water each day
  • Exercise regularly. Exercise has been shown to lessen symptoms during your period. Choose a type of exercise that makes you feel good, whether that be a gentle walk, a yoga workout, or perhaps a home workout. Check the Exercise toolbox in the app for inspiration.
  • Lastly, but most importantly, be kind to yourself. Make sure you take some time for self-care, whether that be a warm bath, watching your favourite tv show, or going for a long walk.

If you feel your menstrual symptoms are preventing you from performing your usual daily activities, we'd suggest speaking with your GP about this, as there are many effective treatments available.

Article written by Jen Taylor, Registered Nutritionist and Second Nature Health Coach

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